Martes, Hulyo 31, 2012

SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TEACHING!

"A plan that emphasizes the parts may pay the cost of failing to consider the whole, and a plan that emphasizes the whole must pay the cost of failing to get down to the real depth with respect to the parts."-C. West Churchman

Introduction 

              The broad definition of educational technology encompasses systems or designs of instruction. In this Lesson, let's discuss a system's or a systematic approach to instruction.

Abstraction

Systematic Approach to Teaching                                                                                                                     As depicted in the chart, the focus of systematic instructional planning is the student. Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students' needs, interests and readiness. On the basis of these objectives the teacher selects the appropriate teaching methods to be used and, in turn, based on the teaching method selected, the appropriate learning experiences an appropriate materials, equipment and facilities will also be selected.

        The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessitates assigning the appropriate personnel to assist the teacher and defining the role of any personnel involve in the preparation, setting and returning of these learning resources. (In some school settings, there is a custodian / librarian who takes care of the learning resources and/or technician who operates the equipment where teachers facilitates.) The effective use of learning resources is dependent on the expertise of the teacher, the motivation level or responsiveness, and the involvement of the students in the learning process. With the instructional objective in mind, the teacher implements planned instruction with the use of the selected teaching method, learning activities, and learning materials with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the teacher. 

         Will the teacher use direct instruction or indirect instruction? Will he/she teach using the deductive of the inductive approach? It depends on his/her instructional objective, nature of the subject matter, readiness of students and the expertise of the teacher himself or herself.

         Examples of learning activities that the teacher can choose from, depending on his/her instructional objectives, nature of the lesson content, readiness of the student are reading ,writing ,interviewing ,reporting or doing presentation, discussing, thinking, reflecting, dramatizing, visualizing, creating judging and evaluating.
 

           Some examples of learning resources for instructional use are textbooks, workbooks, programmed materials, computer, television programs,  flat pictures, slides and transparencies , maps, charts, cartoons, posters, models, mock ups, flannel, board materials, chalk boards, real objects and the like.
 

 After instructions, teacher evaluates the outcome of instruction. From the evaluation results, teacher comes to know if the instructional objective was attained. If the instructional objective was attained, teacher proceeds to the next lesson going through the same cycle once more. If instructional objectives was not attained , then teacher diagnoses was not learned and finds out why it was not learned in order to introduced a remedial measure for improved student performance and attainment of instructional objectives. 

 Analysis

Guide Questions for Discussions

1.Who is at the center of the chart? What does the central location in the chart mean?                                 

   Ans: As depicted in the chart, the focus of systematic instructional planning is the student. Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students' needs, interests and readiness.            

2.What are the steps of the instructional process or the parts of a systematic instruction?
 Ans: The following are the steps of the instructional process:

        a. Define Objectives

        b. Choose appropriate methods

        c. Choose appropriate experiences

        d. Select materials, equipment and facilities

        e. Assign personnel roles

        f. Implement the instruction

        g. Evaluate Outcomes

        h. Refine the process

3.What does each step mean?
 

        a. Define Objectives- Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students' needs, interests and readiness. 

       b. Choose appropriate methods- On the basis of these objectives the teacher selects the appropriate teaching methods to be used

        c. Choose appropriate experiences- In turn, based on the teaching method selected, the appropriate learning experiences an appropriate materials, equipment and facilities will also be selected.

        d. Select materials, equipment and facilities- The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessitates assigning the appropriate personnel to assist the teacher

        e. Assign personnel roles- Defining the role of any personnel involve in the preparation, setting and returning of these learning resources.

        f. Implement the Instruction- With the instructional objective in mind, the teacher implements planned instruction with the use of the selected teaching method, learning activities, and learning materials with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the teacher.

     g. Evaluate Outcomes-  After instructions, teacher evaluates the outcome of instruction. From the evaluation results, teacher comes to know if the instructional objective was attained.

        h. Refine the process- If the instructional objective was attained, teacher proceeds to the next lesson going through the same cycle once more. If instructional objectives was not attained , then teacher diagnoses was not learned and finds out why it was not learned in order to introduced a remedial measure for improved student performance and attainment of instructional objectives.  

4. In what way does the chart show the systematic or systems approach to instruction? Are the elements or phases of instruction independent of one another or do they relate to one another?

Ans: The phases or elements are connected to one another. If one element or one phase of the instructional process fails. The outcome which is learning is adversely affected. The attainment of the learning objective is dependent on the synergy of all elements and f all actors involved in the process.

 

 

 

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